would you believe me if I told you this was actually the only paperclip I could find in my house After seeing this tweet  pointing o...


would you believe me if I told you this was actually the only paperclip I could find in my house

After seeing this tweet pointing out the fact that Prada was essentially selling a paperclip for $185 it had me wondering who invented the paperclip. This is partially because whoever patented the invention would have a lawsuit paper clipped to Prada's doorstep.

If you follow me on twitter - I swear is there a post where I actually don't say / start off a sentence with that - you'll see I wrote a thread on the history of the paperclip after seeing Prada prance around like they've just invented the most original thing on planet earth. 

You're probably sitting there now wondering if I've already wrote a twitter thread what's the point of a blogpost on it - the reason is because scrolling through my twitter page to find said thread when I want to remember who invented what would most likely take hours. (I'm pretty sure I've mentioned this a lot, but if you're new here, I essentially live on twitter.) 

Solution? Write it in a blogpost so if I ever need to remember - it's here for me & perhaps for anyone else who was wondering who invented the paperclip.

[ Okay REALISTICALLY SPEAKING I THINK I AM THE ONLY PERSON WHO WILL EVER WONDER WHO MADE THE PAPERCLIP ] 

We're going to jump back in time to 1899 in England. In that year William Middlebrook invented the machine to make the paperclip HOWEVER he only patented the machine itself not the paperclip that was produced from the machine. He made the machine for the Gem Manufacturing Company. This paperclip is the one we see today, it is actually called the Gem Paperclip.

This is where it gets kind of hilarious. (Well, I thought it was hilarious)

Fast Forward to 1901 and jump into Norway. Over in Norway they didn't hear of the great invention of the paperclip. You're probably sitting there like what's so great about a paperclip except for the fact that it came from a machine in Great Britain?

Well, at that time papers were held down using a straight pin and held together with ribbon - so this paperclip was actually what dreams were made of in 1899.

Anyways - the year 1901 comes and Johan Vaaler is chilling in good ol' Norway and then LIGHTBULB MOMENT what if there was such thing as a paperclip. Unlike William Middlebrook's paperclip, Johan's was rectangular in shape. So in 1901 Johan Vaaler received an American patent for the paperclip [ Norway did not have a patent laws at that time].

The person who is credited with the paperclip invention was Vaaler because William Middlebrook only patented the machine that made the paperclip not the paperclip itself.

[Even though Vaaler didn't hear of the paperclip when he patented his paperclip I kind of like to think Vaaler's thoughts were along the lines of: HAHAHA ENGLAND YOU FORGOT AND IT'S BEEN THREE YEARS YOU HAD YOUR CHANCE - IT'S NORWAY'S PROPERTY NOW XOXO]

You want to know what's even funnier?

Norway has a massive sculpture of a paperclip and it's William Middlebrook's model not Vaaler's!

I like to think Norway was thinking OK MAYBE YOU DID INVENT THE PAPERCLIP ENGLAND.

So, is this where the Crash Course ends?

In my twitter thread yes, in this blogpost uh not yet!

Symbolism of the Paperclip

After Hitler invaded Norway in World War II all symbols of Norway pre-invasion had been banned by the Nazi's (i.e. Symbols of the Royal Family, national symbols etc.). This is when the people in Norway began pinning paperclips to their jackets and even made bracelets with paperclips. The paperclip represented unity - partially because a paperclip was used to bind papers together so it was in a way binding the Norwegian people all together.

During the war, it was thought by Norwegian's that the paperclip was a Norwegian invention - and in technicality it is since Vaaler patented a paperclip first - however rather than the rectangle shape paperclip being clipped on everyones jacket, it was actually the Gem Paperclip invented by William Middlebrook.

Norwegians wearing a paperclip symbolized their resistance against the Nazis. However, once the Nazis figured out the real reason why Norwegian's were suddenly wearing paperclips on their jackets it became a criminal violation and they could of gotten arrested for wearing one.

In the end it didn't matter that they could get arrested or harmed by the Nazis for wearing a paperclip - what mattered was that they resisted and they resisted together.

This is the reason for the paperclip sculpture featuring the Gem Paperclip - rather than Vaaler's - because it was the Gem Paperclip that brought the Norwegian people together in the same way it was used to bind paper together but it was Vaaler's name that gave them the reason to choose it as a symbol of resistance since it was thought to be invented by a Norwegian man.

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I thought it was pretty interesting to read up on the history of the paperclip - also kind of sitting here waiting for the Norwegian twitter to hear about the Prada 'money clip' - hope you also learned something new!




Amendment 16 The Congress shall have power to law and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment am...


Amendment 16

The Congress shall have power to law and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. (X)

What does this mean?

Well, let's take it into parts.

The Congress shall have power to law and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, 

This means that Congress can tax people based on their income - wherever that income comes from

without apportionment among the several States

If an Amendment could @ an Article in the Constitution this is essentially what it would look like.

Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3

SPEEDY TRANSLATION: Direct taxes are taken from states according to their population size.

What is that gibberish supposed to mean?

Direct Taxes
Tax taken directly from the taxpayer (individual).

Prior to this Amendment :
States supported themselves from sales tax, real-estate etc.
Federal Government supported themselves by charging taxes on imports.

In times of need (i.e. Civil War , Spanish-American War) the Federal Government could tax each state based on population size.
_____
This was actually interesting learning about there being a Phone Tax during the Spanish-American War. You can read about that here: Federal Telephone Exercise Tax - Wikipedia
(Yes I know Wikipedia, but it details how often this tax was brought back in times of need)
_____

What did Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3 do?
Basically say if California were considered 5% of the U.S. population and New York was considered 3% of the population - then California would be taxed 5% in Federal Taxes while New York would pay 3% in Federal Taxes.


SPEEDY TRANSLATION:
small population = small percent of tax to be paid to Federal Government.
large population = large percent of tax to be paid to Federal Government.

What the 16th Amendment Fixed:
It doesn't matter what the population of the State is, all States are getting taxed the same way.

To put the first part & this small section together: Federal income taxes would not be divided (or shared with) states and will be based on the person's income not based on the State's population.

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For some additional reading:
_____

and without regard to any census or enumeration.

This means that collecting income taxes does not depend on the population of a State and that everyone - corporations, individuals - basically if you are in America and you have a pulse you have to pay taxes based on your income.
_____
For additional reading, I'd recommend:
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To Summarize:

The amount you pay in taxes is based on your income
This Amendment fixed prior ruling that tax amount was based on population size.

Complete side note - I can't imagine the colonists were jumping with joy when they pushed the tea in the harbor in part due to taxes increasing and then suddenly taxes appeared in Season 2 like that # thought you saw the last of me meme. 
 As in Season 1: British Empire
Season 2: Independence
(OK SORRY FOR THE SIDE BAR - IF YOU'RE WONDERING WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT WITH TEA IN THE HARBOR - Crash Course: Boston Tea Party)

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In what ways has President Trump & his Administration done something that pertains to this Amendment:

Nothing at this time.



- If needed this will be updated from time to time.

_____

Is there an Amendment you would like to more of?
to be taken to a list & choose which one you would like to learn more about.



This is a series that is ongoing - Each Wednesday [ #WednesdayAmendment] there will be an Amendment Explanation paired with what Trump & his administration have done that pertains to the Amendment discussed.








Amendment 15 Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or ...


Amendment 15

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


What does this mean?

Well, let's take it into parts.

Section 1:

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State 

This means that the U.S. government and Individual States cannot deny citizens the right to vote.

[O]n account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

This means the right to vote will not be taken away from citizens due to their race, color, or if they were formerly a slave. [Amendment 13 abolished Slavery]

-- Let's go on a slight tangent --

If you've read the prior Amendment you'll realize that in Section 2 of Amendment 14 it discussed there must being no limitations to 21 year old males to vote because then that State's Representatives in Congress would be decreased.

Well, some Southern States weren't really chill with that Section of that Amendment as well as this Amendment. So, there were a lot of limitations put into place.

What type of limitations, you ask?

There was something called Poll Taxes and Literacy Tests. In order to vote, people had to pay a tax. This prevented former slaves as well as those that were not wealthy from voting because they didn't have money to pay the tax to vote. Literacy Tests were exams that had to be taken in order to qualify to vote. Due to former slaves, and those not wealthy enough to afford education, not having an education this prevented them from voting.

Why didn't it go technically against this Amendment?
Because the Amendment specifies - [O]n account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Southern States did not discriminate based on those three directly - they just made it so that people had to pay to vote & had to pass a test in order to vote. And those that were former slaves were not wealthy enough to pay the poll tax or educated enough to pass a test. Southern States essentially found a loop hole.

*Spoiler Alert - Amendment 24 made Poll Tax illegal*
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If you would like to see a Poll Tax receipt:  White Only: Jim Crow in America - Separate Is Not Equal
Poll Tax amount: $1.50  - $1.75. [site linked also explains why it limits voting]
Now, you may be sitting here like THAT'S NOT EXPENSIVE
Do take note this is also the same time frame where $20 was considered to be enough to buy 20 acres of land.
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Also Fun Fact - America isn't the only one that attempted to go the route of a poll tax. Great Britain's Margaret Thatcher tried to make that happen too  - in 1990.

BACK TO THE NEXT SECTION OF THE AMENDMENT

Section 2:

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

As mentioned in Amendment 13 and 14 - this basically means that Congress will be able to make laws enforcing this Amendment.

_____

To Summarize:
‣ States & the U.S. Government cannot deny citizens the right to vote based on their race, color or if they were formerly a slave.

_____

In what ways has President Trump & his Administration done something that pertains to this Amendment:

Nothing at this time.



- If needed this will be updated from time to time.

_____

Is there an Amendment you would like to more of?
to be taken to a list & choose which one you would like to learn more about.



This is a series that is ongoing - Each Wednesday [ #WednesdayAmendment] there will be an Amendment Explanation paired with what Trump & his administration have done that pertains to the Amendment discussed.




I just wanted to say - when I scrolled through the tag I noticed this photo being used   as well as variations of that photo but...


I just wanted to say - when I scrolled through the tag I noticed this photo being used  as well as variations of that photo but I wasn't sure about who the photo originally belonged to & so here we are with me using my photo above.

A while back, I was nominated for the Liebster Award by Ain (who is amazing - you should definitely head over to check out her blog). I've heard a bit about the Liebster Award via on my Twitter timeline but didn't really know what it was all about till I was nominated. (Thank you Ain for nominating me!)

The Rules

1. Tell 11 facts about yourself
2. Answer the 11 questions that was given by the blogger who nominated you
3. Nominate 11 bloggers to join in on the challenge
4. Give them 11 questions

When I first got the nomination I was like ah yes I will have this done next week so exciting  - well next week turned into about a month later and here we are with me finally typing this; hope you enjoy learning more about me!
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11 Facts about Me

‣  I love to exercise/run (OK WELL this is kind of already known)
‣ I prefer tea over coffee any time any day - and by prefer I mean I will never choose coffee.
‣ I cannot bake/cook without a recipe; I follow that recipe to a T to ensure I don't fail at what I'm making. [Me without a recipe in the kitchen is actually the definition of tragic]
‣ I am actually very sarcastic and am always laughing at something [sometimes I think I come across as too serious on my social media]
 I once binge watched 3 seasons in 2 1/2 days, 2 seasons in 2 days and 1 season in 1 day and a half.  # dedication
‣  I used to have such a good relationship with librarians that once I walked through the door they wouldn't even need my card to know who I am, they'd just look up and tell me the book I ordered has arrived.
‣  I love to read (if you couldn't tell from the above) - the book series that got me into reading was The Hunger Games.
‣  I don't really listen to the radio - I only know what music is 'popular' because I subscribe to a lot of singers on YouTube.
‣  I love to wear patterns and anything that's brightly colored.
10 ‣  Me + Ice cream = A Very Happy Sahara
11 ‣  I love the cold weather more than the hot weather - honestly give me snowy and chilly days and I'll be so content with life.

Before I go to the next section can I just say thinking of 11 facts about myself was actually hard - this took longer than it probably should have.
_____
My answers to Ain's questions

1. What's your favourite smell?
Does chocolate melting count? If so, then that's it.

2. What is the last book you've read?
A Colony in A Nation - it's a really interesting book that puts America under a microscope.
I actually wrote an instagram caption summarizing what I took from the book OH and I wrote a Crash Course on the Boston Tea Party which was inspired by the book!

3. Are you good at hiding your feelings?
Hm. I'd say in some cases I'm an open book and in other cases my poker face is pretty strong.

4. Have you ever liked someone you didn't expect to?
[I'm taking this in a celebrity / people that are in a public position type of way.]
Yes.

5. Have you ever been to a concert?
Yes! I've been to a Tori Kelly concert and it was amazing.

6. Do you have a phobia?
At the moment no.

7. Action or horror movie?
Action movies all the way - I feel like I sometimes laugh at horror movies because everything is so dramatic and I'm sitting there like uh why is that person running in slow motion that's not helping.

8. If you were born to be a different person, would you be a friend of your current self? If yes, why should you? If not, why shouldn't you?
I would say I'd be my friend because my sense of humor, having random knowledge on subjects
 and being the living embodiment of a comic relief sounds like a pretty good package deal in a friend.

9. What are the five top things you want to do in your bucket list?
1. Travel to Scandinavian Countries.
2.Travel to other countries.
3. Do a Triathlon
4.Qualify for Olympics Team
5. I actually don't have a fifth?

10. If you can have only once social media networking site to own forever, which one of these would you pick: Blog/Twitter/Instagram/Snapchat
Twitter! I feel like this is self explanatory - I literally live on twitter.

11. How much do you think your life would change by the end of this year?
Not sure - I don't think it'll change all that much!

 _____
I nominate:

‣ The Lifestyle Flies [Viktoria]
‣ Life Startz Here [Sarah]

_____

My Questions:

1. Do you prefer Tea or Coffee? [What a lovely generic question to start with ]
2. Have you ever read a book that changed your perspective on life? If so, what book was it?
3. What is your favorite historical time period? If you can go back to that point in history what is one thing you would change?
4. What is one topic/subject you wish you knew more of?
5. Do you speak more than one language?
6. Do you exercise daily? If so what is your go-to exercises?
7. Are you an optimistic person or a pessimistic person?
8. Would you say you manage your time wisely or procrastinate most of the time?
9. Do you pay attention to politics?
10. What are the top 5 songs you always listen to?
11. Do you prefer cold weather or hot weather?


_____

I think that's a nice mix of questions- hope you enjoy answering them!




Amendment 14 Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of ...


Amendment 14

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation of rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3. No person shall be Senator or Representative in Congress, or elect of President or Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States not any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

(X)

What does this mean?

Well, let's take it into parts.

Section 1:

All persons born or naturalized in the United States

This means that all people born in the United States or naturalized -

What does naturalized mean?
If a person comes to the United States as an Immigrant, is over 18 years old,  and lived in the United States for 5 years they can fill an application to become a naturalized citizen. (X)

Do Naturalized Citizens have the same rights as natural-born United States citizens?
Yes - but they are not allowed to run for President / Vice President.
_____

and subject to the jurisdiction thereof

This means that a person does not have any allegiance to another country - only to America. 

are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. 

To complete the whole sentence now - Anyone born in the United States or naturalized, and pledging allegiance only to the United States is a citizen of the United States.

No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; 

This means the State cannot make laws that essentially run-over the rights of Citizens.

This pertained to ensuring that all citizens were equal & that the laws applied to all citizens - regardless of skin color.

Prior to this Amendment- African Americans were not considered citizens.
_____
To learn more about the historical context: Privileges or Immunities
_____

nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law

Due Process was also mentioned in the Fifth Amendment in more detail.

This means that a State cannot take away a person life, liberty, or property without following procedures/steps required.

Basically you can't skip all the steps and jump to a conclusion that you want - the person in question must be given a fair procedure.

Also mentioned in findUSlaw:

Due process protection requires hat employees have a fair procedural process before they are terminated if the termination is related to a "liberty." like the right o free speech, or a property interest.

As I mentioned above - in the Fifth Amendment Due Process Clause it is mentioned in detail and means the same as mentioned in this Amendment.

The reason I bolded procedural process is because it is detailed in the Fifth Amendment as well.

nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

This means that the State cannot deny a person equal protection of the law.

Basically - this line (referred to as the Equal Protection Clause) ensures fair treatment of all citizens. At the time, this was angled more towards newly freed slaves after slavery was deemed illegal via the 13th Amendment.

The purpose of this line was to ensure that States treated Whites & newly freed slaves the same with regards to Citizenship rights.

Also, mentioned in findUSlaw:

Equal Protection limits the State and Federal governments' power to discriminate in their employment practices by treating employees, former employees, or job applicants unequally because of membership in a group, like a race, religion or sex.
_____
Interesting to read how this was the beginning of the end of Segregation in Schools:
The Supreme Court. Expanding Civil Rights. Landmark Cases. Brown v. Board Education (1954) | PBS
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Section 2:

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers counting the whole number of persons in each State,

This means that the amount of Representatives in Congress depends on the population of the State. Also mentioned in - 12th Amendment.

excluding Indians not taxed

This part excluded Indians from being counted as part of the population when determining representatives of the State.

What does 'Indians not taxed' mean?
As stated by the Legal Genealogist:
If an Indian is on a reservation, without an allotment of land, or roaming over unsettled territory.

What makes an Indian taxed?
If they live among other people & have their own land (home) and pay taxes - this made them American Citizens.

I'd also like to point out:

On 2 June 1924 it became law that all non-citizen Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United Staes.


But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, 

This seems like a large chunk however simply put -

It means that if a State does not allow some males who can vote for President, Vice President, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislation who are 21 years old or older...


[O]r in any way abridged, except for participation of rebellion, or other crime

or if there are more limitations on 21 -year old males - except for those who rebelled against the government or committed a crime..

the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

This means that the amount of Representatives in Congress for that State would be lowered.

SPEEDY TRANSLATION: If there are limitations placed on males who are 21 or older (age able to vote) - the Representatives for that State will be lowered in Congress.

What do I mean by limitations?

Well during this time Salves were not considered to be full people - only 3/5th of a person. With Slavery abolished in Amendment 13 - this amendment basically squashed the whole 3/5th of a person and ensured that former slaves were to be considered whole people. And so if males are 21 years or older, regardless of race, they have a right to vote. If the State did not allow all males 21 and older to vote then the number of Representatives in Congress would be decreased.

Also *spoiler alert*- Age limit was reduced to 18 in the 26th Amendment!

Section 3:

No person shall be Senator or Representative in Congress, or elect of President or Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. 

I can already see you reeling back like HOLD UP WHAT HAPPENED TO THE LINE BY LINE WHAT IS THIS PARAGRAPH

Well, that's because this whole chunk means:

No person is allowed to be a Senator, Representative in Congress, elect a President or Vice President, hold any office in the United States- BASICALLY:

No person is allowed to hold any US Office or vote for President or Vice President if the person was involved in a rebellion against the nation.

Now, what's this whole rebellion against the nation about during this time period?

This was aimed after the Civil War towards the Confederate States (Southern States) who fought against the Union (The North).  This section specifies that no person part of the Confederacy ( the ones who fought against the North) could hold State or Federal Offices.

Also it does not allow people who have given aid to the Nation's enemies to hold office.

SPEEDY TRANSLATION OF THIS PART OF THE SECTION: The South was in the North's playground which meant they followed the North's rules. Fought against the North? Say goodbye to the idea of you ever holding any type of office.

But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.

And say hello to the tiny possibility of people -who fought against the Union & gave aid to enemies of the Nation -holding office.

If 2/3rd of the Senate and 2/3rd of the House of Representatives vote for a person to take office even though they did the above (aiding an enemy & fighting a rebellion against the nation) then they are allowed to occupy the State / Federal Office.

Section 4:

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law

This means that the United States would pay all debts that were authorized by law


What does authorized by law mean?
At the time this Amendment was created - it was angled more towards the Civil War. It indicated that all money taken by the Government (The Union) to support themselves against the South would be paid back.
As said by President Lincoln:
"[The Civil War] has produced a national debt and taxation unprecedented, at least in this country."

_____
To read more about the debt:

Also - if you're wondering who made up the Union Army:

If you'd like to learn more about the Economy of the South & North:

_____
It essentially means that all government bonds and others authorized by Congress will be paid.

including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. 

This means that the Government will pay regular payments and reward those who served in the Union Army against the rebellion [The Confederacy aka The South] - This is not to be disputed it will happen no if's this that or anything like that.

_____
If you're wondering about regular payments paid to those who served in the Union Army, there is one person who is the daughter of someone who fought in the Union Army that is paid regularly.


_____

But neither the United States not any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States

This means that the United States as a whole - including State's as a stand alone - will not be held accountable to pay any debt that is amounted due to fighting from a Rebellion against the U.S.

SPEEDY TRANSLATION [TO PUT IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT]: Oh so the South has debt? That's cute - the North is not paying for it & neither are the individual States.

or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

This means that the U.S. will not pay for the Slave Owners who claimed they were at a loss (and should be paid) due to the 13th Amendment making slavery illegal. 


Section 5:

The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article

As mentioned in the previous Amendment - this basically mean Congress will be able to make laws enforcing this Amendment.

Example:
With regards to the Equal Protection of Laws (Section 1)
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended all state and local laws requiring segregation.
_____

To summarize:

Section 1
‣ Any person born on American Soil or naturalized is an American Citizen.
‣ Due process - meant that States could not pass unfair laws.
‣ No State can take away the privileges given to an American Citizen.
‣ Equal Protection of Laws - means that States could not discriminate against a specific group of people.

Section 2
‣ Representatives in Congress depends on the population of the State.
‣ If States denied some males who were 21 their right to vote then that State would be given less representatives in Congress.

Section 3
‣ No person can hold a U.S. office or vote if they were involved in a rebellion against the nation or in aiding an enemy of the nation.
(This was aimed towards the South - the North did not want the South to hold any office.)
‣ Unless 2/3 of Senate and House of Representatives vote to allow said person to hold office.

Section 4
‣ The debt of the government in order to protect the nation would be paid.
‣ The government will not be held accountable to pay any debt that is amounted due to fighting from a Rebellion against the U.S.

Section 5
‣ Congress will be able to make laws enforcing this Amendment.

_____


In what ways has President Trump & his Administration done something that pertains to this Amendment:




This is an updated version of the Muslim Ban signed on March 6, 2017 which barres people from 6 predominantly Muslim countries: Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria, Sudan, Yemen.

How does this pertain to this Amendment?

As also referenced in the 5th Amendment - this is a violation of the Due Process Clause.

Many refugees and people who had visas were detained without being allowed access to a lawyer.

As stated by this Amendment:

nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

As mentioned by the Boston Globe - the Amendment does not say 'American Citizen' but is directed towards 'Any Person' - which means it applied to those who do not have full rights as Americans.

Once they have entered the country - the law of the land: Due Process & Equal Protection of the Laws must be followed.







- If needed this will be updated from time to time.

_____

Is there an Amendment you would like to more of?
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to be taken to a list & choose which one you would like to learn more about.

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If you read my previous posts, you'll know that having a training plan didn't really do me any favors. I ended up overtraining w...


If you read my previous posts, you'll know that having a training plan didn't really do me any favors. I ended up overtraining which eventually led to me taking a few months break due to injuries. In my previous post I explained that I was going to be using the Nike+ Run Club App only to keep track of my pacing.

Well, uh so I ended up on the tab that said 'My Coach' and long story short I'm now on a Training Plan. If you're sitting there like girl what about what you said - they [RunKeeper App Training Plan] pushed you too hard & you ended up taking a few month break. This was the inner battle in my head - essentially. However the one thing that made me jump into a Training Plan was that I was only running one mile every other day and that was it. After 2 weeks my timing was pretty much floating around the same minute per mile - and so I thought maybe this app will be different. 

Also, only doing the same run every single day can get a little boring - well if you're me and forget to update your running playlist that is. Previously - I did a Training Plan with the RunKeeper App and the results were amazing: I was running faster- with a 6 min per mile time - however due to the intensity of my running I was doing every other day I ended up getting an injury on my foot which put me out of running for a few months.

I'm about 3 weeks into this Training Plan (out of 8 weeks) and I can see that there is a difference in my pacing - partly because the App puts in a day specifically for cardio exercises. Unlike the RunKeeper App that only kept me running, the Nike+ Run Club App includes strength training one day and then running on two other days.

I do feel myself getting stronger - and let me first tell you those cardio exercises are intense, especially considering I exercise while fasting. Doing strength training while fasting is interesting - and by that I mean I occasionally have to stop the exercise I'm doing to rest a bit more before continuing.

I should probably note that I exercise about an hour before it is time for me to break my fast - so essentially right when I finish my workout it's time to eat!
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If you're wondering what I'm going on about in terms of fasting I've written a Crash Course on Ramadan
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One thing I will say in terms of Having a Training Plan vs Not Having One is that having a training plan actually gives you motivation to go and work-out. I personally just always grab my sneakers & run regardless but it's good to have a bit of extra motivation to run and get the little green check when you finish a work-out.

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In terms of Exercising Before & After a Run

I've changed my exercises a bit from the last time:

Before Run:
(Personally only use the ones before running)

After Run:

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If you're sitting there like okay the Training Plan MAY give me SOME motivation but not enough to get me out the house / on a treadmill here are some accounts on Twitter that always make me motivated to go for a run:

Essentially - when people go out for a run they take a photo of their view while running & tag them in the photo and basically on your timeline you see amazing views people have while they're running.  

Pretty sure it's in the name but it's where there's a chat all about running  - I personally haven't been able to catch a chat due to actually running whenever the chat happens but I always check back to see the questions and see what the chat centered on!

They always have the best tips & exercises and relatable articles on running - oh and often they give a playlist to keep you powered through your runs!

They also give tips and some different exercises to incorporate before / after your run as well as healthy snacks to eat before/after a run.

Similar to the above Runner's World - great tips & advice on running.

Another tip - follow Olympic Runners - they're awesome & always get me motivated for my next run!


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Missed a previous fitness type post?
Here's the one prior to this -> Running Right